Tag Archives: Maslow’s hierarchy of needs

Expectancy Theory

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Victor Vroom, Expectancy Theory [1964]

Vroom’s expectancy theory is all about weighing options and making choices.  It asserts, in essence, that people will put forth effort when they believe that such effort will result in an outcome, and that that outcome is worthwhile. This theory is composed of three key elements and resulting questions that individuals (in this case, employees) ask themselves:

  • Expectancy: “How likely is it that I’ll be able to attain a particular goal (in this case, a certain level of performance) if I put forth the required effort?”
  • Instrumentality: “Assuming that I do attain this level of performance, how likely it is that I’ll be recognized or rewarded in some way?”
  • Valence: “Assuming that I am recognized or rewarded, what is that recognition or reward really worth to me?”

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Equity Theory

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J. Stacy Adams, Equity Theory [1963]

Equity Theory, as the name implies, is predicated on the assumption that people want to be treated fairly, particularly when compared to how others around them are treated.  It also purports that such comparisons will be made frequently.

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Acquired Needs Theory

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David McClelland, Acquired Needs Theory – 1961

McClelland’s theory identified and focused on one particular need – achievement. According to McClelland, achievement is not a universal motivator for everyone, and the degree of need varies from individual to individual.

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Theory X and Theory Y

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Douglas McGregor, Theory X and Theory Y  [1960]

Building on Maslow‘s work, Theory X and Theory Y refers to two approaches to management:

  • Theory X Managers manage in accordance with the general belief that employees are uncommitted, uninterested, hesitant to assume any additional responsibility, and essentially lazy.
  • Theory Y Managers manage in accordance with the general belief that employees will take on – and even look for – additional work if the employee perceives that the work is satisfying and rewarding.

Related articles

—————————-

Learn more about Motivation by visiting LPHR on your desktop, tablet or smartphone.  For HR Business Professionals interested in Leadership Communications, LPHR Magazine presents you with simple concepts and practical applications to help you develop personally and professionally Find the latest issue, complimentary, on LPHR’s Scribd.

LPHR connects you with resources, tools and info that support progressive growth for your business and your life.  Remember to visit our website at www.lphr.co, find us on Facebook at www.facebook.com/LPHRs and follow us on Twitter @lphrgroup.

DON’T FORGET!  Take advantage of LPHR’s Complimentary 2013 Recognition Guide | Recognition Made Simple
http://ow.ly/jlmtP  Enjoy!

Motivation-Hygiene Theory

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Frederick Herzberg, Motivation-Hygiene Theory [1959]

Herzberg identified two separate and distinct types of needs:

  • Motivation factors: Related specifically to the job itself – for instance, the nature of the work, the challenge inherent to the work, and/or the perceived or real value of the work.
  • Hygiene factors: Related to everything else an employee might experience in the workplace – everything associated with the work, but not the work itself.  This includes – but is not limited to – pay, benefits, nature of supervision, relationships with co-workers and so forth.

Continue reading Motivation-Hygiene Theory