Tag Archives: vroom

Expectancy Theory


Victor Vroom, Expectancy Theory [1964]

Vroom’s expectancy theory is all about weighing options and making choices.  It asserts, in essence, that people will put forth effort when they believe that such effort will result in an outcome, and that that outcome is worthwhile. This theory is composed of three key elements and resulting questions that individuals (in this case, employees) ask themselves:

  • Expectancy: “How likely is it that I’ll be able to attain a particular goal (in this case, a certain level of performance) if I put forth the required effort?”
  • Instrumentality: “Assuming that I do attain this level of performance, how likely it is that I’ll be recognized or rewarded in some way?”
  • Valence: “Assuming that I am recognized or rewarded, what is that recognition or reward really worth to me?”

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Motivation is literally the desire to do things.  It’s the difference between waking up before dawn to pound the pavement and lazing around the house all day.  It’s the crucial element in setting and attaining goals – and research shows you can influence your own levels of motivation and self-control.  So, figure out what you want. Power through the pain.  Start being who you want to be.  Start creating the environment you want to lead.

Understanding Motivation Concepts and Applications is one of the core areas of knowledge for any Human Resource Professional.

Motivation cuts across all six functional areas.  Motivation, for instance, is often associated with why – and how – employees or people learn.  It’s also highly relevant, however, to how employees perceive and value salaries, wages, and benefits, and to establishing and sustaining positive relationships in the workplace.

motivation mind

Motivation theory directly impacts employee performance in the workplace.  As such, HR Professionals need a keen understanding of the various motivation theories to incorporate them – in a practical sense – into their initiatives and into their consulting relationships with managers and leaders across the organization. Some of the key theories in which HR Professionals must be well versed are the following:

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