Victor Vroom, Expectancy Theory 
Vroom’s expectancy theory is all about weighing options and making choices. It asserts, in essence, that people will put forth effort when they believe that such effort will result in an outcome, and that that outcome is worthwhile. This theory is composed of three key elements and resulting questions that individuals (in this case, employees) ask themselves:
- Expectancy: “How likely is it that I’ll be able to attain a particular goal (in this case, a certain level of performance) if I put forth the required effort?”
- Instrumentality: “Assuming that I do attain this level of performance, how likely it is that I’ll be recognized or rewarded in some way?”
- Valence: “Assuming that I am recognized or rewarded, what is that recognition or reward really worth to me?”
- Expectancy Theory
- Acquired Needs Theory
- Theory X and Theory Y
- Motivation-Hygiene Theory
- Operant Conditioning
- Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
- Equity Theory
- Motivation Theory and Practice
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